It had been cleverly carved to fit the skull and stained to look ancient.
In addition, the associated bones from extinct animals had much older fluorine and nitrogen ratios than either the jaw or the human skull.
This is referred to as dating by association with they underwent relatively rapid evolutionary changes that are identifiable in their teeth and other skeletal parts.
Their bones also were frequently found in association with our human and primate ancestors.
(length = 7 mins, 24 secs) The perpetrator of the Piltdown Man hoax may have been uncovered.
This relative dating method is based on the fact that there are specific progressive chemical changes in skeletal remains that result from burial underground.
That man was a medical doctor by training and therefore had the necessary skills to carry off the hoax.
He was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the author of the Sherlock Holmes detective stories.
We will never know whether he was really the perpetrator, but he is now the leading candidate.
Another candidate was a famous practical joker who lived near the Piltdown gravel deposit during the early 20th century.